It consists of the islands of the Nansei Islands (Okinawa Islands, Sakishima Islands, Daito Islands) excluding the Shonan Islands in Kagoshima Prefecture, and is sandwiched between the East China Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The area is 2,281㎢, the second smallest after Kagawa Prefecture, Osaka Prefecture, and Tokyo, and includes the southernmost region of Japan where people live. [Note 1] Yonaguni-cho, Yaeyama-gun is the local government located at the westernmost tip of Japan, and Twish, located 260m north-northwest of Yonagunijima, is the westernmost point in Japan .
About 90% of the citizens of the prefecture are concentrated on the main island of Okinawa, and may be divided into the main island of Okinawa and other remote islands.
Almost the entire area has a subtropical climate, and some belong to the tropics. It has a mild climate throughout the year, and there is no difference between the maximum and minimum temperatures, and there are no mountains with high altitudes.
It is located in an important place as a sea transportation route (sea lane) and a military site (first archipelago line), and there are many US bases in Japan. Major US military facilities include Kadena Air Base, Futenma Air Base, Camping and Butler.
According to “Nakayama Sekan” compiled during the Ryukyu Kingdom era, the child was moved to Okinawa Island (Unten Port) to escape from the chasers, and the child was the first Ryukyu king 舜天. It is said that it has become, and is treated as Masafumi. Around the 12th and 13th centuries, the Three Mountains Kingdom (Kitayama, Zhongshan, Nanshan) was erected, and it was traded in China (Ming) with a booklet and traded in Ryukyu (Gusuku period). In 1429, Zhongshan Wang Nao Zi destroyed Namsan and Kitayama and founded the Ryukyu Kingdom (Mr. Daiichi). In 1469, Kanemaru, who was the vassal of Sangdeok, captured the throne, and called himself Sang Yong King and took the throne. The map also extends to the surrounding Sakishima Islands and the Amami Islands, but in 1609 (Keicho 14), the invasion of the Satsuma Domain surrendered to the surrender of the King Ning, and the Amami Islands that were under the kingdom at that time became the Satsuma Islands Ceded [Note 2], the kingdom was under the control of the Satsuma Domain (Ryukyu invasion). Even after the invasion by Satsuma, the kingdom continued to receive China's book-wrapping, and it had become a system of “both belonging to” Japan's Satsuma and Kiyokuni, but it played a role as a relay trade place between the two countries under the isolation system, and through its trade The culture and autonomy of the country.
Following the opening of the Meiji Restoration on the mainland of Japan in the modern era, the Nisshin Shusei Code was concluded in September 1871 (Meiji 4), and diplomatic relations were established with Kiyo. However, in October of the same year, about a month later, the Miyakojima Islander Distress Incident occurred, and the Meiji government rushed to establish a centralized state to deal with diplomacy. In 1872 (Meiji 5), the Ryukyu Pass was established, Sealed the Ryukyu king's Naotai with "Ryukyu Keio" and set up a mansion in Tokyo. After negotiations with Kiyoshi by the Fukushima Foreign Affairs Minister, he was dispatched to Taiwan in 1874 (Meiji 7). A diplomatic incident with the On April 4, 1879 (Meiji 12), the Meiji government abolished the Ryukyu Domain and established Okinawa Prefecture, and Naotai moved to the mansion in Tokyo and became a Chinese. The ruins of the castle ruins in the Gusuku period are registered as a UNESCO World Heritage site as “Gusks and related heritage groups of the Ryukyu Kingdom”.
In 1945 (Showa 20), in the Pacific War, it was called “The Only Ground Battle”. The U.S. army landed on the coast of Yomitan village on the main island of Okinawa on April 1 and quickly took control of the northern half of the island, the Japanese army was driven to the south by the U.S. army's total attack, and the general headquarters was placed Shuri Castle was burnt down, and on June 23, the Okinawan defense commander commander Masanaka Ushijima and others self-determined in Mabunhito ended the organized battle. The fierce battle that lasted for about three months killed one in every four citizens of the prefecture and devastated the land. Currently, Mabunhi is designated as the Okinawa Battle Site National Monument, and June 23 is a holiday for Okinawa Prefecture as a memorial day.
After the war, the Nansei Islands were occupied by the US military, Japan's administration was suspended, and Okinawa Prefecture once disappeared as an entity (Okinawa rule by the United States). Under the leadership of the U.S. army, the Ryukyu government was born. The village and farmland were seized on a large scale for the construction of the base, and a right-handed road was developed. Post-war reconstruction was promoted in the American way, such as requiring a passport to travel to Japan. Okinawa remained under the rule of the US military after Japan, which was occupied by GHQ in 1952, regained sovereignty. After the 1950s, the Korean War and the Vietnam War broke out, Okinawa became more important as a front supply base for the U.S. military, and many U.S. military personnel were stationed.B-52 and other strategic bombers, defoliants and nuclear weapons Many destruction weapons were deployed, and Vietnam was afraid of “Devil Island” . While the economy relied heavily on bases, prices were cheap and living was stable due to the effects of a fixed exchange rate system with a weaker yen against the yen, and the population was about 500,000 immediately after the end of the war until it returned to the mainland. In just 27 years, it has doubled to about 1 million. However, the islanders were strongly opposed to the powerful and discriminatory administration by the US military, and large-scale anti-base movements seeking to return to the mainland were being developed in various places (Island Ruggle Struggle). In 1971 (Showa 46), Prime Minister Eisaku Sato and President Richard Nixon signed an Okinawa return agreement. In 1972, Okinawa was reinstated in Japan and Okinawa was revived. (Okinawa return) [Note 4] [Note 5]. Base issues, unexploded shell issues, and Japan-US status agreement issues that have continued since the US military rule are major political issues for the prefecture (see “Futenma Base Relocation Issue”).
From the historical background described above, the culture, customs, names, dialects, cuisine, industry, population structure, and institutionalities of the main four islands ("Mainland") are very different from those of the main prefecture. In some cases, people other than the citizens of the prefecture are called “indians”.
It is one of the best resorts in Japan, with particular emphasis on the tourism field with strengths such as cultural experience, Okinawan cuisine, leisure, marine sports, war remains, etc. Tertiary industries including tourism account for 79.2% On the other hand, the primary industry is 5.4%, and the secondary industry is 15.4% .
In the martial arts world, it is famous worldwide as the birthplace of karate (Ryukyu Karate), and many foreign students have entered and practiced Karate Dojo in the prefecture. In boxing, he has produced a number of world champions and famous players, including Gushiken High School from Ishigaki City.